Ribosomes are molecular machines, which catalyze the translation of genetic information into proteins. They consist of two unequal subunits (small subunit and large subunit), both of which are large assemblies consisting of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal proteins. While the structure and function of bacterial ribosomes is well understood, thanks largely to experiments guided by atomic structures, little is known about the more complex structure and function of eukaryotic ribosomes. Ribosomes of eukaryotic cells are significantly larger than bacterial ribosomes. While bacterial ribosomes have a molecular mass of 2.6MDa, eukaryotic ribosomes consist of a small 40S and a large 60S subunit and are almost twice as large with a molecular mass of 4.3MDa. Eukaryotic ribosomes are also more complex as they contain 45 additional ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, the translation initiation process in eukaryotes is very different compared to bacterial and is highly regulated in a number of cellular processes including development, differentiation, stress response, and neuronal function and consequently many diseases, including cancer and metabolic disorders, are connected with improper functioning or regulation of the initiation of protein synthesis. Find out more about the recent results on eukaryotic ribosomes.